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  • carnosine (beta-alanyl-l-histidine) is a dipeptide molecule, made up of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine. it is highly concentrated in muscle and brain tissues.[citation needed]

    carnosine and carnitine were discovered by russian chemist vladimir gulevich. it has been proven to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ros) as well as alpha-beta unsaturated aldehydes formed from peroxidation of cell membrane fatty acids during oxidative stress. it also buffers ph in muscle cells, and acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. it is also a zwitterion, a neutral molecule with a positive and negative end.[citation needed]

    like carnitine, carnosine is composed of the root word carn, meaning “flesh”, alluding to its prevalence in animal protein. there are no plant-based sources of carnosine. therefore, a vegetarian or vegan diet provides little or no carnosine in comparison to the amounts found in a diet that includes meat.

    carnosine can chelate divalent metal ions.

    carnosine can increase the hayflick limit in human fibroblasts, as well as appearing to reduce the telomere shortening rate. it is also considered as a geroprotector.

    biosynthesis
    carnosine is synthesized in vivo from beta-alanine and histidine. since beta-alanine is the limiting substrate, supplementing just beta-alanine effectively increases the intramuscular concentration of carnosine.

    physiological effects
    carnosine has a pka value of 6.83, making it a good buffer for the ph range of animal muscles. since beta-alanine is not incorporated into proteins, carnosine can be stored at relatively high concentrations (millimolar). occurring at 17–25 mmol/kg (dry muscle), carnosine (ß-alanyl-l-histidine) is an important intramuscular buffer, constituting 10-20% of the total buffering capacity in type i and ii muscle fibres.

    tcsgroupr
  • micafungin, sold under the brand name mycamine, is a polyene antifungal medication used to treat and prevent invasive fungal infections including candidemia, abscesses and esophageal candidiasis. it inhibits the production of beta-1,3-glucan, an essential component of fungal cell walls. micafungin is administered intravenously. it received final approval from the u.s. food and drug administration (fda) on march 16, 2005, and gained approval in the european union on april 25, 2008.

    indications
    micafungin is indicated for the treatment of candidemia, acute disseminated candidiasis, candida peritonitis, abscesses and esophageal candidiasis. since january 23, 2008, micafungin has been approved for the prophylaxis of candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (hsct).

    micafungin works by way of concentration-dependent inhibition of 1,3-beta-d-glucan synthase resulting in reduced formation of 1,3-beta-d-glucan, which is an essential polysaccharide comprising one-third of the majority of candida spp. cell walls. this decreased glucan production leads to osmotic instability and thus cellular lysis.

    tcsindustryy
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    Einarmige Banditen
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    Kevincrack
  • , sold under the brand names protopic and prograf among others, is an immunosuppressive drug. it is used after allogeneic organ transplant to lower the risk of organ rejection, and also as a topical medication in the treatment of t-cell-mediated diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. it also used for severe refractory uveitis after bone marrow transplants, exacerbations of minimal change disease, kimura’s disease, and the skin condition vitiligo, and it is used to treat dry eye syndrome in cats and dogs.

    tacrolimus inhibits calcineurin, which is involved in the production of interleukin-2, a molecule that promotes the development and proliferation of t cells, as part of the body’s learned (or adaptive) immune response.

    chemically, it is a macrolide lactone that was first discovered in 1987, from the fermentation broth of a japanese soil sample that contained the bacterium streptomyces tsukubaensis.

    medical uses
    organ transplantation
    it has similar immunosuppressive properties to ciclosporin, but is much more potent. immunosuppression with tacrolimus was associated with a significantly lower rate of acute rejection compared with ciclosporin-based immunosuppression (30.7% vs 46.4%) in one study. clinical outcome is better with tacrolimus than with ciclosporin during the first year of liver transplantation. long-term outcome has not been improved to the same extent. tacrolimus is normally prescribed as part of a post-transplant cocktail including steroids, mycophenolate, and il-2 receptor inhibitors such as basiliximab. dosages are titrated to target blood levels.

    ulcerative colitis
    in recent years,[when?] tacrolimus has been used to suppress the inflammation associated with ulcerative colitis (uc), a form of inflammatory bowel disease. although almost exclusively used in trial cases only, tacrolimus has shown to be significantly effective in the suppression of flares of uc.

    skin

    tacrolimus 0.1% ointment
    see also: medications used in treatment of eczema
    as an ointment, tacrolimus is used in the treatment of eczema, in particular atopic dermatitis. it suppresses inflammation in a similar way to steroids, and is equally as effective as a mid-potency steroid. an important advantage of tacrolimus is that, unlike steroids, it does not cause skin thinning (atrophy), or other steroid related side effects.

    it is applied on the active lesions until they heal off, but may also be used continuously in low doses (twice a week), and applied to the thinner skin over the face and eyelids.[citation needed] clinical trials of up to one year have been conducted. recently it has also been used to treat segmental vitiligo in children, especially in areas on the face.

    lupus nephritis

    tacrolimus has been shown to reduce the risk of serious infection while also increasing renal remission in lupus nephritis.

    tcsindustryp

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